For decades the most-exported and therefore most important banana in the world was the Gros Michel, but in the 1950s it was practically wiped out by the fungus known as Panama disease or banana wilt. (Also known as Fusarium fungus). Banana growers turned to another breed that was immune to the fungus - the Cavendish, a smaller and by all accounts less tasty fruit but one capable of surviving global travel and, most importantly, able to grow in infected soils.
But now, almost two hundred years later, the Fusarium Wilt has adapted and is killing the Cavendish. So far, the damage is calculated at about 30 % of the world wide crop and spreading fast. And considering that more than 100 billion bananas are consumed annually in the world, making it the fourth most important food crop after wheat, rice and corn, in the developing world, we have to begin to look seriously at biodiversity in all of our crops like wheat, rice, corn, and other critical foods. For a longer look at the Cavendish and Fusarium Wilt check the link here.